The 3-day workshop is divided in two parts:

May 20 Lectures

  • Water and the aqueous environment. Usefulness and limits.
  • Combining pH and PKA for a safer approach to the intervention.
  • Surface cleaning vs. the removal of film-forming materials.
  • A further control parameter: ion concentration and its measure, conductivity.
  • Tailoring the aqueous medium to specific needs: buffers, chelators, surfactants and enzymes.
  • When the aqueous medium is not sufficient: usefulness and limits of organic solvents: (neutral and dipolar non-protogenic).
  • Safer ways of delivering water to surfaces: gelled solutions, rigid gels (special focus), water-in-oil emulsions.
  • Are our expectations of “cleaning” legitimate, fair, and compatible with the intrinsic fragility of the work of art?

May 21 - 22 Practical applications

Preparing free- and gelled-aqueous solutions, solvent mixtures and emulsions. Application to selected case-studies. Critical evaluation of results.
Questions and discussion.